Alicante Journal of English Studies / Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses

Sports and Adventure Tourism Anglicisms in Spanish: Esferatón or Zorbing?

Isabel De la Cruz, Cristina Tejedor Martínez

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.2019.32.04

Abstract

Active and adventure tourism are two types of tourism that take place outdoors in contact with nature. The present article discusses the language of sports and adventure tourism in Spanish focusing on the use of Anglicisms. We examine the different aspects related to the integration and adaptation of English words. The integration process is often attested through the change in the spelling of the word and its adaptation to the Spanish orthographic system. Furthermore, the influence of English upon Spanish pervades not only its lexicon, but also its morphology, syntax, semantics and phraseology. In this article, we analyse word morphology in terms of plural formation and gender assignment. In order to carry out the research, the data are retrieved from a corpus and an associated database, known as Anglicor, that the authors have been compiling since 2003 up to now. The corpus is made up of several subcorpora, whose main topics are computers, medicine and health issues, fashion, beauty, science and technology, and tourism. The tourism subcorpus is a collection of texts from airline magazines, brochures, academic journals, leaflets, websites and active tourism magazines. For this study, we have made use of recent texts from specialised websites and printed magazines. Thus, the explanations are illustrated with examples obtained from authentic sources, which will provide an up-to-date overview of the presence, use and significance of Anglicisms in the language of sports and adventure tourism in Spanish.

Keywords

Anglicisms; Anglicor; Gender and number of Anglicisms; Tourism discourse; Sport and adventure tourism

References

Aire Libre. January-February 2018, issue 272 to December 2018, issue 281.

Turismo Activo, http://turismo-activo.net.

Turismo activo y deporte Andalucía, http://www.andalucia.org/es/turismo-y-deporte.

My protein, https://www.myprotein.es/thezone/entrenamiento/deportes-de-aventura-populares/.

Deportes de Aventura para todos, http://deportes-aventura.es/.

Multiaventura Buendía, https://multiaventurabuendia.es/actividades-multiaventura.php.

Karma Turismo Activo, https://www.karmaturismoactivo.com/.

Campo Activo, Aventura y naturaleza, http://www.campoactivo.com/activites.

Web Consultas. Revista de Salud y Bienestar, https://www.webconsultas.com/categoria/ ejercicio-y-deporte/vida-activa.

Yumping, https://www.yumping.com/noticias-aventura/articulos.

Ocioaventura, http://ocioaventura.es/actividades/.

Vitónica, https://www.vitonica.com/carrera/nuevos-deportes-al-aire-libre.

Naturaliste, https://naturaliste.es/actividades/aventura/.

Revista Ibérica, https://www.revistaiberica.com/category/turismo-y-aventura.

Araújo Vila, Noelia, José Antonio Fraiz Brea and Valerià Paül Carril. “El turismo activo como modalidad turística en expansión. Análisis de la oferta de turismo activo en España”. Contabilidad y Negocios, 7(13), 2012, pp. 59–70.

Arndt, Walter W. “Nonrandom Assignment of Loanwords: German Noun Gender”. Word, 26(2), 1970, pp. 244–253.

Aron, Albert W. “The Gender of English Loan-words in Colloquial American German”. Curme Volume of Linguistic Studies. Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America, 1930, pp. 11–28.

Barkin, Florence. “The role of loanword assimilation in gender assignment”. Bilingual Review/Revista bilingüe, 7, 1980, pp. 105–112.

Beatty-Martínez, Anne L. and Paola E. Dussias, “Revisiting Masculine and Feminine Grammatical Gender in Spanish: Linguistic, Psycholinguistic, and Neurolinguistic Evidence”. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2019, pp. 1–11.

Buckley, Ralf. Adventure Tourism Management. Oxford: Elsevier, 2010.

Bull, William. Spanish for teachers: Applied linguistics. New York: The Ronald Press, 1965.

Chaston, John M. “Sociolinguistic analysis of gender agreement in article/noun combinations in Mexican American Spanish in Texas”. Bilingual Review/Revista bilingüe, 21(3), 1996, pp. 195–203.

Corbett, Greville. Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

De la Cruz Cabanillas, Isabel, and Cristina Tejedor Martínez. “Criterios para el diseño de una base de datos de préstamos ingles en el español peninsular contemporáneo”. In Cantos Gómez, Pascual, and Aquilino Sánchez Pérez (eds.), A Survey on Corpus-based Research. Panorama de investigaciones basadas en corpus. Murcia: Asociación Española de Lingüística de Corpus, 2009, pp. 741–755.

De la Cruz Cabanillas, Isabel, and Cristina Tejedor Martínez. “Email or correo electrónico? Anglicisms in Spain”. RESLA, 25(1), 2012, pp. 95–117.

De la Cruz Cabanillas, Isabel, and Cristina Tejedor Martínez. “Anglicisms Everywhere! The influence of English as a global language”. In Grozeva-Minkova, Maria and Boris Naimushin (eds.), Globalisierung, interkulturelle Kommunikation und Sprache. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2014, pp. 123–132.

De la Cruz, Isabel, Cristina Tejedor, Esperanza Cerdá, Mª Rosa Cabellos, and Mercedes Díez. “Anglicisms in Spain: gender assignment and plural formation in touristic texts”. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos, 13–14, 2007–08, pp. 13–37.

Dubord, Elise M. “Gender assignment to English words in the Spanish of Southern Arizona”. Divergencias. Revista de estudios lingüísticos y literarios, 2(2), 2004, pp. 27–39.

Estornell Pons, María. “Aproximación al léxico del turismo activo: codificación lexicográfica, formación y variación denominativa”. Normas. Revista de estudios lingüísticos hipánicos, 3, 2013, pp. 33–55.

Fisiak, Jacek. “Some remarks concerning the noun gender assignment of loanwords”. Bulletin de la Société Polonaise de Linguistique, 32, 1975, pp. 59–63.

Furiassi, Cristiano, Virgina Pulcini and Félix Rodríguez González (eds.), The Anglicization of European Lexis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2012.

García, Mary Ellen. “Gender marking in a dialect of Southwest Spanish”. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 17(1), 1998, pp. 49–58.

Gómez Capuz, Juan. Préstamos del español: lengua y sociedad. Madrid: Arco Libros, 2004.

Gómez Capuz, Juan. La inmigración léxica. Madrid: Arco Libros, 2005.

Hock, Hans Henrich. Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1991.

López Morales, Humberto. “Anglicismos léxicos en el habla culta de San Juan de Puerto Rico”. LEA, IX, 1987, pp.285–303.

Lorenzo Criado, Emilio. El español lengua en ebullición. Madrid: Gredos, 1994.

Lorenzo Criado, Emilio. Anglicismos Hispánicos. Madrid: Gredos, 1996.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary of the English language, https://www.merriam-webster.com/

Moliner, María. Diccionario de uso del español. Madrid: Gredos, 2008. 3rd ed. on DVD.

Morin, Regina. “Terminal letters, phonemes, and morphemes in Spanish gender assignment”. Linguistics, 48(1), 2010, pp. 143–169.

Oncins Martínez, José Luis. “Towards a Corpus-Based Analysis of Anglicisms in Spanish: A case study”. IJES Special Issue, 2009, pp. 115–132.

Onysko, Alexander. Anglicisms in German borrowing, lexical productivity and written codeswitching. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2007.

Onysko, Alexander, Marcus Callies and Eva Ogiermann. “Gender Variation of Anglicisms in German: The Influence of Cognitive Factors and Regional Varieties”. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 49(1), 2013, pp.103–136.

Oxford English Dictionary, http://oed.com

Pratt, Chris. El anglicismo en el español contemporáneo. Madrid: Gredos, 1980.

Poplack, Shana, Alicia Pousada and David Sankoff. “Competing influences on gender assignment: Variable process, stable outcome”. Lingua, 57, 1982, pp. 1–28.

Real Academia Española and Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española. Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas. Madrid: Santillana, 2005.

Real Academia Española. Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 2010.

Real Academia Española. Diccionario de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 2018, http://www.rae.es.

Rodríguez González, Félix. “El género de las siglas”. Revista Española de Lingüística, 14(2), 1984, pp. 311–366.

Rodríguez González, Félix. “Anglicismos y calcos en el español actual”. In San Vicente, Félix (ed.), L’inglese e le altre lingue europe. Studi sull’interferenza lingüística. Bologne: CLUEB, 2002, pp. 149–169.

Rodríguez González, Félix. “Orientaciones en torno a la elaboración de un corpus de anglicismos”. In Echenique Elizondo, Mª Teresa, and Juan Sánchez Méndez (eds.), Lexicografía y lexicología en Europa y América. Homenaje a Günther Haensch en su 80 aniversario. Madrid: Gredos, 2003, pp. 559–575.

Rodríguez González, Félix. Gran Diccionario de Anglicismos. Madrid: Arco Libros, 2017.

Rodríguez González, Félix. “El plural de los anglicismos: panorama y revisión crítica”. Boletín de la Real Academia Española, xcvii (315), 2017, pp. 299–329.

Seco, Manuel. Gramática esencial del español. Madrid: Aguilar, 1972.

Seco, Manuel, Olimpia Andrés Puente and Gabino Ramos González. Diccionario del Español Actual. Madrid: Aguilar, 1999.

Smead, Robert. “On the Assignment of Gender to Chicano Anglicisms: Processes and Results”. Bilingual Review/La Revista Bilingüe, 25(3), 2000, pp. 277–297.

Tejedor, Cristina, Mª Rosa Cabellos, Isabel de la Cruz, Mercedes Díez and Esperanza Cerdá. “La presencia de préstamos ingleses en las lenguas de especialidad”. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos, 13–14, 2005–06, pp. 347–381.

Zamora, Juan Clemente. “Morfología bilingüe: La asignación de género a los préstamos”. Bilingual Review/Revista bilingüe, 2(3), 1975: pp. 239–247.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.2019.32.04

Copyright (c) 2019 Isabel De la Cruz, Cristina Tejedor Martínez

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.